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Archive of methodological explanations for the news release:

Usage of information and communication technologies in the enterprises

Status: 10.10.2014

Purpose of the statistical survey
The statistical survey ICT.1 is an annual survey about the usage of information and communication technologies (ICT) in enterprises. The survey provides information concerning the usage of ICT in the current year (reference year), e.g. whether the enterprises use computers, have access to the Internet, what are the types of Internet connections, have a website, whether they automatically and electronically share data outside the enterprise and within the enterprise, while some of the information refer to the previous year, such as the data on e-commerce and usage of e-government services.
The results of this survey as well as the results of the other surveys in this field will contribute to determine the level of development of the information society in our country.

Observation units are enterprises, registered on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, with the following main activities in the National Classification of Activities NKD Rev.2, by divisions, groups or classes:
10-33: Manufacturing activities (manufacture of food, textile, wood, tobacco, paper products, printing, manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products, chemical, pharmaceutical and products from rubber and plastic products, manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products, metal and metal products, manufacture of computers, electronic and optical products, electrical equipment, machinery and equipment, and other manufacturing);
35-39: Electricity, gas, water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities;
41-43: Construction;
45-47: Trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles;
49-53: Transportation and storage;
55: Accommodation;
56: Food and beverage service activities;
58-63: Information and communication;
68: Real estate activities;
69-74: Professional, scientific and technical activities;
77-82: Administrative and support service activities
Financial and insurance activities:
64.19, 64.92: Other monetary and other credit intermediation,
65.1, 65.2: Insurance, reinsurance,
66.12, 66.19: Security and commodity contracts brokerage, other activities auxiliary to financial services, except insurance and pension funding.

We also publish data on the ICT sector covering enterprises registered in the following activities:
26.1: Manufacture of electronic components and boards
26.2: Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment,
26.3: Manufacture of communication equipment,
26.4: Manufacture of consumer electronics,
26.8: Manufacture of magnetic and optical media,
46.5: Wholesale of information and communication equipment,
58.2: Software publishing,
61: Telecommunications,
62: Computer programming, consultancy and related activities,
63.1: Data processing, hosting and related activities, web portals,
95.1: Repair of computers and communication equipment.

Note: Starting from 2011, this survey started to apply the National Classification of Activities NKD Rev.2 instead of NKD Rev1.1. In 2010, both classifications NKD Rev1.1 and NKD Rev.2 were taken into account in the survey, and the activities: “Electricity, gas, water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities” and “Repair of computers and communication equipment” were added.

The survey in 2014 did not include enterprises with the following financial activities of NKD Rev.2: 64.19, 64.92, 65.1, 65.2, 66.12, and 66.19.

According to the number of employees enterprises are grouped as follows:
Micro enterprises: with 1-9 employees
Small enterprises: with 10-49 employees
Medium enterprises: with 50-249 employees
Large enterprises: with 250 and more employees

Note: In 2012, enterprises with less than 10 employees were excluded as observation units.

The sample is stratified random sample. The stratification of the sample is by stratum of groups of activities and by groups of employees.

The sample frame is the Statistical Business Register, situation as at the end of the previous year.

Method of data collection
The data are collected by filling in a questionnaire (form IKT.1). A paper questionnaire is sent to the chosen enterprises.
The questionnaires and the basic methods of the survey are prepared according to Eurostats’ methodology and recommendations, in accordance with the regulations of the European Community.
Regulation (EC) No 808/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council is the framework regulation and basis on which Commission regulations concerning Community statistics on information society are adopted annually.

The reference period for most variables is January of the current year, and for variables about e-Government usage and e-commerce (buying / selling via websites or EDI-type messages) the reference period is the previous year.

Data shown are estimates according to responses obtained from the enterprises. Weighting of the data obtained from the non-financial enterprises is made with the Horwitz-Thompson (HT) estimator of reverse probabilities by strata. SAS statistical procedures are used.

Definitions and other explanations

Information and communications technology (ICT) is equipment and programme (software and hardware) for data communication. The means through which the information are being exchanged are: radio, TV, satellite dish, fixed telephone and mobile phone, personal computer, Internet, e-mail.

IT/ICT Specialists have the capability to specify, design, develop, install, and maintain ICT and ICT systems.

Internet (World Wide Web) - World wide open computer mediated system (network) available to the public based on a standardized Internet protocol (IP) that enables the users from various places to communicate and exchange audio-visual information.

Web site - Location on the World Wide Web identified by a Web address. Collection of Web files on a particular subject, including a starting entry page called a home page.

Extranet - A secure extension of an Intranet that allows the external users to access some parts of the enterprise's Intranet.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - Temporary connection to the Internet, designed to enable digital transmission of voice, picture and data, via usual telephone copper wire, that is with grater quality and speed (up to 128 Kbit/s) than the analogous one.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technologies as: ADSL, HDSL, SDSL, VDSL etc, designed to increase bandwidth available over standard copper telephone wires.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) - UMTS is a third technological generation of wireless telecommunications. It supports a speed of data transmission up to 2Mbps and can transmit voice, text and video data. UMTS is a broadband technology using packages commuting.

GSM - Global System for Mobile Communication - Globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication.

Broadband access to the Internet - implies rapid transmission of data (e.g. films, games, video-conferences) over an Internet network, enabled by technologies or connections such as: xDSL (ADSL, VDSL), cable connection, optical connection, leased lines, UMTS.

Mobile broadband (Mobile connection to the Internet) is the name used to describe various types of wireless high-speed Internet access through a portable modem, telephone or other device, using at least 3G technology (e.g. UMTS, CDMA2000 1xEVDO, HSDPA).

Electronic transmission of data suitable for automatic processing means: sending and/or receiving of messages (e.g. orders, invoices, payment transactions, product descriptions, transport documents, tax declarations) in an agreed or standard format which allows their automatic processing (e.g. EDI, EDIFACT, ODETTE, TRADACOMS, XML, xCBL, cXML, ebXML), to or from other enterprises, public authorities or financial institutions, via any computer network, without the individual message being typed manually.

Automatic share of information within the enterprise- Sharing information electronically and automatically between different functions of the enterprise means any of the following: using one single software application to support the different functions of the enterprise, e.g. ERP (Enterprise Resource planning) software; data linking between the software applications that support the different functions of the enterprise; using a common database or data warehouse accessed by the software applications that support the different functions of the enterprise; within this enterprise, sending or receiving electronically information that can be processed automatically.

EDI, EDI-type - Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) refers to the structured transmission of data or documents between organizations or enterprises by electronic means (e.g: EDIFACT, UBL, XML). It also refers specifically to a family of standards (EDI-type) and EDI-type messages which can be automatically processed.

E-commerce - An e-commerce transaction is the sale or purchase of goods or services, conducted over computer networks by methods specifically designed for the purpose of receiving or placing of orders. The goods or services are ordered by those methods, but the payment and the ultimate delivery of the goods or services do not have to be conducted online. An e-commerce transaction can be between enterprises, households, individuals, governments, and other public or private organisations. E-commerce comprises orders made in Web pages, extranet or EDI and excludes orders made by telephone calls, facsimile, or manually typed e-mail. The type is defined by the method of making the order.

E-Government - electronic government, i.e. use of information and communication technologies in the public administration and public institutions, which contributes to better fulfilment of citizens’ and enterprises' requirements (contacts via e-mails are excluded).

E-tendering is a stage of eProcurement that deals with the preparation and submission of tenders or offers online. This includes offers that are submitted through the Internet either via open, restricted, or negotiated procedures, as well as framework agreements and Dynamic Purchasing System (DPS). Offers submitted over e-mails are excluded.

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) - consists of one or of a set of software applications that integrate information and processes across the several business functions of the enterprise, such as planning, procurement, sales, marketing, customer relationship, finance and human resources.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management) - use of information technologies to collect, integrate, process and analyse information related to the customers.

Radio Frequency identification technologies (RFID) means: an automatic identification method to store and remotely retrieve data using RFID tags or transponders. A RFID tag is a device that can be applied to or incorporated into an object (product or person) and transmits data via radio waves.

Cloud computing refers to ICT services that are used over the Internet to access software, computing power, storage capacity, etc., where the services have all of the following characteristics:
- are delivered from servers of service providers,
- can be easily scaled up or down (e.g. number of users or change of storage capacity),
- can be used on-demand by the user, at least after the initial set up (without human interaction with the service provider),
- are paid for, either per user, by capacity used, or they are pre-paid.
Cloud computing may include connections via Virtual Private Networks (VPN).


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