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Methodological explanation for the news release:

Usage of information and communication technologies by households and individuals

Purpose of the statistical survey
The statistical survey ICT.3 is an annual survey about the usage of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the households and by individuals, with the aim to provide information about the access to certain information and communication technologies (e.g. computers, mobile devices, Internet), frequency and purpose of their usage, information literacy of the population of the Republic of Macedonia. 

Observation units 
Observation units are the households that have at least one person of age 15-74, and a person, member of the household, who is at the time of data collection aged 15 to 74 years. 

Method of data collection
Data are collected by face-to-face interview survey, conducted yearly (in April or May) on the whole territory of the Republic of Macedonia, based on a sample of households, by filling in a questionnaire (IKT.3). 

The sample size is 1995 households. 

The frame for household selection was the data from the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings, 2002. 

The reference period - in general, it is the first quarter of the year - the period of 3 months prior to the survey. Some data (e.g. e-commerce, usage of e-government services) refer to the last 12 months - the period of 12 months prior to the survey. 
The questionnaires and the basic methods of the survey are prepared according to Eurostat’s methodology and recommendations, in accordance with the regulations of the European Community. Regulation (EC) No 808/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council is the framework regulation. 

The data in the survey refer to households and persons, and they are calculated by applying two weights: household weight and weight for persons. The weights for households are obtained as inverse values of inclusion probabilities, and then adjusted with the non-response by stratum. The weights for individuals, besides the calibration with the rate of non-response, are calibrated with the reference projections of population by sex and by six age groups. 

Definitions and other explanations

Information and communications technology (ICT) 
is equipment and programme (software and hardware) for data communication, for example, mobile phone, personal computer, Internet, e-mail. 

Internet (World Wide Web) - World wide open computer mediated system (network) available to the public based on a standardized Internet protocol (IP) that enables the users from various places to communicate and exchange audio-visual information. 

Web site - Location on the World Wide Web identified by a Web address. Collection of Web files on a particular subject, including a starting entry page called a home page. 

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - Temporary connection to the Internet, designed to enable digital transmission of voice, picture and data, via usual telephone copper wire, that is with grater quality and speed (up to 128 Kbit/s) than the analogous one. 

xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technologies as: ADSL, HDSL, SDSL, VDSL, etc., designed to increase bandwidth available over standard copper telephone wires. 

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) - UMTS is a third (3G) generation of mobile telecommunications technologies based on GSM standard. It enables users to transmit high volume of data (e.g. videodata, images), through wireless connection and give access to the Internet at much higher speed compared to 2nd or 2.5 generation networks such as GPRS. UMTS is a broadband technology that is constantly in a process of improvement and upgraded, e.g. with HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access), sometimes known as 3.5G. 

GSM - Global System for Mobile Communication - Globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is known as second generation, 2G or 2.5 G, mobile technology, and it is one of the narrowband conection to the Internet . 

Broadband access to the Internet - implies rapid transmission of data (e.g. films, games, video-conferences) over an Internet network, enabled by technologies or connections such as: xDSL (ADSL, VDSL), cable connection, optical connection, leased lines, UMTS. 

Mobile broadband (Mobile connection to the Internet) is the name used to describe various types of wireless high-speed Internet access through a portable modem, telephone or other device, using at least 3G technology (e.g. UMTS, CDMA2000 1xEVDO, HSDPA). 

E-commerce - Purchasing/selling of products/services via Internet and other networks. The payment and the ultimate delivery of the goods or services do not have to be conducted online. Orders made by telephone calls, facsimile, or manually typed e-mail are not included into e-commerce. 

E-Government - electronic government, i.e. use of information and communication technologies in the public administration and public institutions, which contributes to better fulfilment of citizens’ and enterprises' requirements (contacts via e-mails are excluded). 

Cloud computing refers to ICT services that are delivered from servers of service providers and used over the Internet to access software, computing power, storage capacity, etc. 

Last updated: 20.03.2019

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